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DIRECTORATE OF AYUSH
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Unani
 

Unani system is one of the oldest  systems of medicine, based on the teachings of Hippocrates (Father of Medicine) in  460 BC, who freed medicine from the realm of superstition and magic and gave it  the status of science. It is an extensive medical  system that deals with various states of the body (healthy and disease). The  system is integrated in nature and offers preventive, promotive, curative and  rehabilitative healthcare. UNANI is derived from the word IONIAN which  indicates its genesis in  the present day Greece (Unan) and TIBB means medicine.

        Unani  system was developed in Arab and Persian lands. It was introduced by Arabs into  Indian subcontinent about a millennium ago.Here it found its permanent home to  see the peak of its scientific development. This system, over the centuries has  incorporated so well in the Indian civilization that today it is established by  Government of India as one of the Indian systems of medicine, and forms an  elemental part of our national healthcare delivery system.


Fundamentals  of Unani System of Medicine:
  In Unani  system of medicine, human body is based on seven natural principles, known as “Umure  Tabiya”.These are the very factors responsible for the existence of the  human body and are considered responsible for the maintenance of health. The  loss of any one of these components could lead even to death of the individual.  These are as follows:

  1. ELEMENTS (Arkan  Or Anasir)
  2. TEMPRAMENT (Mizaj)
  3. HUMOURS (Akhlat)
  4. ORGANS (Aza)
  5. PNEUMA OR  VITAL SPIRIT (Arwah)
  6. FACULTIES OF  POWER (Quwa)
  7. FUNCTION (Al-Af’al)

 Unani system is based on the Hippocratic  theory which postulates that a perfect balance of "Arkan" (elements), "Akhlat" (humors) and "Mizaj"  (temperament) keeps the body and mind healthy. The theory presupposes the  presence of four humours in human body- "Dam" (blood)  "Balgham" (phlegm), "Safra"  (Yellow bile) and Sauda (black bile).Every individual has an  inherent power of self-preservation called  the "Quwwat-e-Modabbira". Unani system of medicine aims  at restoring the equilibrium of various elements and faculties of the human  body.

Prevention  of Diseases & Promotion of Health
 In Unani medicine much emphasis is on the  prevention of the disease and promotion of health than to cure. It also  recognizes the influence of surrounding and ecological conditions on the state  of health of human beings. Baqa–e-sehath (preservation of health) has  been defined under Asbabe-Sittah Zaruriah.Asbabe-Sittah Zaruriah (six  essential factors of health) influence each and every individual and all mental  and physical diseases are due to their imbalance. For the maintenance of good  health these essential factors should be balanced in terms of quality, quantity  and sequence in order to sustain good health.   Balanced relationship between these factors keeps the humours and  temperament on the right track. The best possible way of health promotion in  this holistic system of medicine is improvement of Tabiyat (Medicatrix  nature or immunity).

Asbab-e-sittah zaruriyahAsbab-e-sittah zaruriyah are six  essential factors necessary for healthy life described by ancient Unani  physicians.  Allama Nafees defined the  Asba-e-sittah zaruriyah “these are the factors which accompany a person for  whole life”. Unani scholars classified these factors into six therefore these  are called Asbab-e-sittah zaruriyah (six essential factors for healthy  life). It includes the following six factors.

  1. HAWA(Environmental Air)
  2. MAKOOL WA MASHROOB(Food and Drinks)
  3. HARKAT WA SUKOON BADNI(Physical Movement and  Repose)
  4. HARKAT WA SUKOON NAFSANI (Psychic Movement and  Repose)
  5. NAUM  WA  YAQZA(Sleep and Wakefulness)

EHTABAAS  WA ISTAFRAAGH (Retention of Nutritive material and Regular Excretion of waste  material)

Diagnosis In  Unani
 In unani system of  medicine the most important aspect forthe diagnosis of diseases are three in  number,and they are Nabz (pulse), examination of baul (urine)  and Baraz (stool).
  The  surroundings and the ecological conditions are very much responsible for the  state of health of a person. Much emphasis is laid on the causes for the  prevention of health as (asbab sittah zaruriyah) are taken into  consideration as well as on the Mizaj (temperament) of the  diseased.


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Shri Arvind Kejriwal
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Last Updated : 28 Feb,2020